Engineering and technology
work in progress ..
Definition of heat power, definition of thermodynamics
Sources of energy used in heat power – a) coal, b) oil, c) gases
Development of Heat engines (brief discussion) – a) external combustion engines, b) internal combustion engines
Fundamental concept – system – boundary – surrounding a) closed system, b) open system, c) isolated system, flow system , non-flow system
State of a system – properties – intrinsic and extrinsic properties
Path - process
Equilibrium – a) Mechanical, b) Thermal, c) Chemical, d) Thermodynamic equilibrium.
Cycle – Thermodynamic cycle, Mechanical cycle
Units – Absolute & gravitational system of units – a) S.I. units, b) M.K.S. Gravitational units – Weight
Pressure – Definition, Units – S.I. and M.K.S. – Pascal, bar, torr – Kgf/cm2 standard atmospheric pressure – gauge pressure, absolute pressure – simple problems.
Temperature - Definition, units – Zeroeth Las of Thermodynamics, Instruments used for measuring temperature.
Meaning of N.T.P. and S.T.P.
Work – Definition of work from thermodynamic point of view - representation of work on P-V diagram and units
Power – Definition – KW and HP, relation between KW and HP
Energy – Definition – Stored energy – units i) Potential, ii) Kinetic, iii) Internal energy – b) transitional energy – Heat and Work.
Flow work or energy of flow
Heat - Definitions and units – similarities between heat and work
Specific heat at constant pressure (Cp) and Specific heat at constant volume (Cv), Adiabatic Index (Cp/Cv)
First Law of thermodynamics - Mechanical equivalent of heat, - perpetual motion machine of first kind (PMMI)
General Energy - equation for steady flow system and associated energy terms – S.F.E.E. – applicable to - a) nozzle, b) boiler, c) steam turbine, d) compressor (No Problem)
Simple energy equation for non-flow process ( Q – W) = E
Limitation of 1st. Law of thermodynamics – a) heat engine and b) heat pump – efficiency of heat engine, C.O.P. and E.P.R.
2nd law of thermodynamics – statement (Clausius & Kelvin-Planck)
Perpetual motion M/c of 2nd (PMM-II)
Properties of Gases
Difference between gas and vapour – critical temperature and pressure, difference between perfect gas and real gas
Equation of state – PV = MRT - characteristic gas constant – units, Physical significance of characteristic gas constant – universal gas constant.
Relation between two Specific heats with characteristic gas constant.
Entropy – concept – analogy of heat energy with work – concept of T – Q plane – units of entropy. Entropy change of a perfect gas in terms of a) T – V , b) P – V and c) P and T.
Non-flow process of perfect gas, P-V and T-Q diagram, relation between pressure and temperature, volume and work done , change of I.E., heat transfer, change of entropy for the following processes
Problems on processes
Formation of steam, change of state, T-S diagram
Basic terms and properties of steam: Saturation temperature, saturation pressure, dry, wet and superheated steam, dryness fraction, degree of superheat, sensible heat or liquid enthalpy, enthalpy of evaporation or latent heat of evaporation, enthalpy of dry saturated, wet, superheated steam, specific volume, entropy of water, evaporation and steam (dry, wet & superheated)
Throttling of steam (concept only)
Steam table – its use, problems using steam tables
Enthalpy- Entropy chart (Mollier – chart) – its use
Steam calorimeters, types, principle for calculation of dryness fraction in:
separating and combined calorimeter
Metal cutting machine tools – definitions, classifications, elements, purpose and accuracy
Machine tool drives – elements, classifications, individual vs group drive
Cutting tools materials – Properties and uses – Cutting tool life – Equation for cutting tool life – Factors for cutting tool life.
Cutting tool classifications, nomenclature of a single point cutting tool, tool angles and its influence
Forces acting on a single point cutting tool, orthogonal and oblique cutting
Concept of chip formation, types of chips
Coolant used in metal cutting
CLASSIFICATION OF STEEL
a) Carbon steel – Dead steel, mild steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, percentage of carbon & application of each . Influence of manganese, silicon, sulpher, & phosphorous in plain carbon steel.
Alloy steel – Purpose of using alloy steel ,effects of alloying elements like nickel, chromium, cobalt, manganese, silicon, molybdenum, tungsten , vanadium , Classification of alloy steel according to the principle alloying elements , names & uses , Classification of alloy steel according to purpose & application- structural steel , tool steel – composition & application
IRON CARBON EQULIBRIUM DIAGRAM & HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL
Iron carbon diagram – Name of the phases & temperature of transformation to be specified ( without going into detail of any structure)
Concept of heat treatment of steel & purpose of heat treatment
Annealing , normalising , hardening , tempering of steel , principle of the process ( heating temp. ,soaking , cooling ) , purposes & uses of each process ,hardenability , definition & tests
Case hardening process – a)Curburising b) Nitrading c) cyaniding – principle , purpose & uses
Surface hardening – a) Flame hardening b) Induction hardening – principle & purposes
Welding & Allied Process
Concepts of welding - Workability
Gas Welding: Principle, Equipments, Types of flames, Application, Safety — Arc Welding: Principle, Application, equipment, safety.
Resistance Welding: Types (Names Only) — Spot Welding: Principle, simple sketch of setup, application — Seam Welding: Principle, simple sketch of setup, application.
Thermit Welding: Principle of operation, application
Special Welding Techniques: TIG, MIG, Electron Beam Welding, sub-merged arc welding – Principle & Application
Defects in welding, Remedies
Soldering, Brazing – Principle and application.
Mechanical Working of Metal
Classification of mechanical working of metals – Hot working and Cold working – examples.
Forging – Types (Hand forging, Power hammer forging, Drop forging, Press forging) – Principle of operation – Characteristics, Advantages and Defects of forged parts – Application.
Extrusion – Definition, Principle of operation, Hot and Cold extrusion, Application
Rolling - Principle of Hot and Cold rolling – Field of application
Wire drawing – Principle of operation, Field of application.
Mechanical and chemical cleaning of metals (Names & Principles)
Surface Treatment – Electroplating, Hot Dipping, Metal Sprays, Anodising, Enamelling, Galvanising (Principle and field of application)
Steam Power Cycles
Reversible Cycle – Carnot Cycle (with gas and vapour) – Representation on P-V, T-S planes, Thermal Efficiency – impracticability of Carnot Cycle in active cases – (Problems on Carnot Cycle with steam). Rankin Cycle – with & without feed pump work. P-V, T-S diagram, Thermal Efficiency, Work Ratio, Specific Steam Consumption, (Problems), Modified Rankine Cycle – P-V, T-S diagram, (Simple line diagram & Names – No details) (No Problems), Simple Reheat Cycle – Regenerative Cycle (No Problem)
Three Basic Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction: Fourier’s Law of heat conduction – Thermal Conductivity.
Heat transfer through plane homogeneous wall, Heat transfer through composite wall, Heat transfer through hollow cylinder – (Simple Problem)
Convection: Explanation of Convective heat transfer, Principle of heat exchanger (No Deduction & Problem)
Radiation: Explanation of heat transfer by radiation, definition of absorptivity reflectivity, transmissivity, Black Body. Stephen-Boltzman Law – Statement and Explanation of terms with unit (No Problem)
Steam-power plant lay-out
Shaper & Planner
Specifications & types of Shaper
Construction of a Shaper & brief functions of its part.
Crank slotted link mechanism (adjustment of length of stroke & position of stroke).
Hydraulic shaper -Working principle & quick return mechanism.
Different operation performed on a shaper –Flat surface, Angular surface, Slot, Formed surface.
Cutting speed, feed, depth of cut machining time calculation.
Cutting tool - types only.
Job holdings devices – Fixture, Vice, Directly over table.
Planning m/c- Specifications & types. Quick return mechanism a) Open & Cross belt b) Variable speed.
Difference between Planner & Shaper.
Difference between plain milling & universal milling.
Milling m/c parts & their functions.
Cutter holding device – Arbors, fixing of arbor with machine spindle. Arbor assembly accessories & attachments.
Milling processes- Peripheral milling, Up & Down milling, difference, Face milling, End milling, Straddle milling, Plain milling, Side milling, Angular milling, Gang milling, End milling etc.
Milling operations with cutter & job set up & the directions of movements.
Milling cutters- Types, elements, negative rake cutter (purpose).
Cutting speed, feed, depth of cut & machining calculations.
Indexing- Purpose, types, description with working principle of differential indexing head, cutting spur gear with different index head, calculation & problem, difference index plate & cutter nos.
Generating method of cutting gears – working principle of gear shaper, hob cutting.
Abrasives – Types & Uses.
Effect of bond, Grit, Grade & Structure in manufacturing a grinding wheel.
Specification of a grinding wheel.
Grinding Machine – Types, Operations performed (specially Surface Grinding & Cylindrical Grinding) emphasis on Centreless Grinding (Outside & Inside)
Factors selecting a grinding wheel, Balancing & Mounting a grinding wheel, Glazing & Loading of wheels. Care & Maintenance of grinding wheel.
Honning & Lapping – Principle & Use only.
Advantage & disadvantage of using a Broaching machine.
Broaching Machine – Types, Operations performed, Accuracy achieved.
Broach tool – Elements, free hand sketch of a Broach tool.
Types and size of a press machine.
Operations performed like Blanking, Piercing, Drawing, Bending, Embossing, Coining, etc.
Press tools (Die & Punch), Die accessories, elements of Die & Punch.
Computer aided design process (Geometric Modelling, Engineering analysis, Design review & Evaluation, Automated Drafting),
Benefits of CAD in Engineering industry
Solar energy – Advantages & limitations
Solar radiation – Extraterrestrial radiation, solar constant, atmoshpheric attenuation of solar radiation, beam, diffuse & total radiation
Solar thermal collectors – Flat plate collector, its construction & operational features, advantages & limitations, concentrating collector, its principle of operation, advantages & disadvantages over FPC, solar pond, its construction & operational features, advantages & limitations
Solar thermal power systems – Layout & description of low temperature system using FPC or solar pond, medium & high temperature systems using concentrating collectors, central receiver systems
Photo voltic power generation system – Layout, description & function of different elements, advantages & disadvantages
WIND POWER PLANTS
Wind energy – Planetary wind & local wind, wind power density, power coefficient, advantages & disadvantages of wind energy
Wind power systems – Horizontal axis wind energy generator , its layout & schematic diagrams showing basic components & their functions, vertical axis wind mills, savonius & darrieus wind mills, their relative advantages & disadvantages
Application of wind energy
GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS
Nature of geothermal fields
Geothermal sources – Names of different sources, brief descriptions of various hydro thermal systems
Geothermal power systems – Description with layout diagram of vapour dominated system, liquid dominated flashed system & binary systems, geothermal preheat hybid system
Advantages & disadvantages of geothermal energy
Application of geothermal energy
REFRIGERATION & AIR-CONDITIONING
Terms and defination – Heat engine, refrigerator, heat pump, refrigeration, refrigerant, refrigerating effect, refrigeration capacity, cop, relative cop
Methods of refrigeration ( names and application)
AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Reversed carnot cycle, determination of cop
Bell-Coleman cycle- open system, closed system. Determination of cop
Boot- Strap air cycle- schematic and T-S diagrams. Necessity of aircraft cooling and sources of cooling loads.
VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Fundamental operations and analysis with schematic T-S and p-h diagrams for simple cycle , c.o.p
Advantages and disadvantages of vapour compression system over air refrigeration system
Actual vapour compression cycle—variation from theoretical cycle
Effects of sub cooling and superheating
VAPOUR ABSORPTION SYSTEM
Flow diagram and operation of NH3- WATER cycle, components- generator, rectifier, condenser, evaporator, absorber, heat exchanger, pump
Flow diagram and operation of Lithium bromide – water cycle
Flow diagram and operation of electrolux refrigerator
Comparison between vapour compression and vapour absorption systems.
Definition and function of refrigerant
Desirable properties of refrigerant
Classification of refrigerant
Important requirements, secondary requirements
Selection of refrigerant for required purpose
REFRIGERATION COMPONENTS, CONTROL AND SAFETY DEVICES
Brief description and field of application of reciprocating compressor, rotary compressor, centrifugal compressor
Brief description and field of application of air cooled and water cooled condensers
Brief description and field of application of evaporators
Brief description and field of application of expansion devices-capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve
Control and safety devices- low side float valve, high side float valve, solenoid valve, compressor over current and over heating protection, high and low pressure cut-outs
APPLICATION OF REFRIGERATION
Food preservation- spoilage agents and their control, prservation by refrigeration
Cold storage-construction ( layout), capacity and application
Refrigerators and freezers
Ice plant- construction (layout), capacity and application
Ice- cream plant- construction (layout) and operational features
Dry ice production- construction (layout) and operation of simple system, application
Air conditioning & its applications
Industrial & comfort air conditioning, factors affecting human comfort, effective temperature, comfort chart, heat & moisture losses from human body
Air conditioning systems – summer air conditioning for hot & dry climate, for hot & humid climate ( layout), winter air conditioning ( layout), all- air type & all- water type ( hydraulic ) air conditioning systems, unitary & central systems, all year air conditioning system ( layout) ,window air conditioner, split air conditioner, desert cooler & cooling tower
COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING
Awareness of command ;- Limit, Zoom, pan, line, circle, polyline , multiline, polygon, arc, text, dtext, ddedit, dimension, hatch, layer, offset, trim, extend, erase, scale, dist, area, fillet, chamfer, array, block, attribute etc.
Assembly views to be given . draw the Detail Drawing of the same through different sectional views ( Front View, Side View & Top View)
IMPACT OF JET.
Direct impact of a jet on a stationary flat plate
Direct impact of a jet on an inclined fixed plate
Impact of a jet on a moving plate
Impact of a jet on a series of flat vanes mounted on the periphery of a large wheel
Condition fir maximum hydraulic efficiency
Force of jet impinging on a fixed curved vane
Force of jet impinging on a moving curved vane, velocity Diagram
All related problems
Reciprocating pump – Types
Classification of pumps
Working principle ( single acting & double acting), discharge, slip, pump work, power required, indicator diagram ( Simple related problems)
Use of air vessels
Advantages & disadvantages of reciprocating pump over reciprocating pump
Centrifugal pump – types
Working of the pump, methods of converting the K.E of water leaving the impeller into pr. Energy, the volute chamber, the vortex or the whirl pool chamber, guide blades, priming
Inlet & outlet vector diagrams, work done by the impeller, the manometric head, the manometric effy., impeller power, the mechanical effy., the overall effy., (RELATED PROBLEMS)
Minimum speed to run the pump. loss of head due to reduced or increased flow ,multistage centrifugal pumps ,specific speed of centrifugal pumps
Selection of pump ( Both reciprocating & centrifugal)
Classification – Impulse ,reaction & kaplan
Pelton wheel – components , working principle, velocity diagrams, work done, power ,effy. ( PROBLEMS)
Francis turbine – components, working principle, velocity diagrams, work done, power, effy., (PROBLEMS)
Kaplan turbine- components
Governing of an impulse turbine ( pelton wheel)
Difference between impulse & reaction turbine
Layout diagram of a hydraulic power house
Selection of turbine – specific speed
Water hammer ,Surge tank & Cavitation
APPLIED MECHANICS AND DESIGN
Engineering Mechanics: Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.
Strength of Materials: Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.
FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL SCIENCES
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer; elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.
Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and processes; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases, properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.
Applications: Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines — impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.
Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment, stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials.
Metal Casting: Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design, design considerations.
Forming: Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.
Joining: Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in welding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs and fixtures
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
Theory of Machines
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms. Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multicylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechnical systems (single degree and two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.
Mechanics of Solids :
Stress and strain in two dimensions. Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and an isotropy, Stress-strain relations, unlaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Banding moment and shear force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses, Thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struls and columns, Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Rotation discs. Shrink fits.
Enginerring Materials :
Basic concepts on structure of solids, Crystalline materials, Defects in crystalline materials, Alloys and binary phase diagrams, structure and properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite Materials, common applications of various materials.
Manufacturing Science :
Marchant’s force analysis, Taylor’s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics, Rigid, small and flexible automation, NC, CNC. Recent machining methods- EDM, ECM and ultrasonics. Application of lasers and plasmas, analysis of forming processes. High energy rate forming. Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges, Inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.
Basic concept. Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodynamic Laws, Gas equations, Clapeyron equation, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations.
I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion :
Spark lgnition and compression ignition engines, Four stroke engine and Two stroke engines, mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance.
Combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engines, preignition detonation in S.I. engine Diesel knock in C.I. engine. Choice of engine fuels, Octance and Cetane retings. Alternate fuels Carburration and Fuel injection, Engine emissions and control. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and lower calorific values and their measurements.
HEAT TRANSFER, REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING :
One and two dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free convection. Heat exchangers. Fundamentals for diffusive and connective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non balck surfaces, Network Analysis. Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls. Properties and choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration Systems and components, psychometrics, comfort indices, cooling loading calculations, solar refrigeration.
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