World history summary chapter 1 to 41




World history summary chapter 1 to 41


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World history


World history summary chapter 1 to 41


AP World History Review
Textbook Summary


  1. Chapter 1: The Watershed of the Fourth Millenium B. C. E.

Although not yet major urban centers, such as those associated with early civilizations, Catal Huyuk and Jericho established patterns of standardization and fortification that would eventually be found in the greater cities of Sumer and Egypt. Economic specialization and social stratification proved critical to the development of technological innovation in the fourth millennium B.C.E.
During the thousand years after 4000 B.C.E. the shift from stone tools to bronze took place. The development of writing made record-keeping and trading more effective. Most of this new technology was limited to Eurasia and Africa. The isolation of the Americas prevented the dissemination of many technological advances. Isolation of the Americas also made the people of those continents vulnerable to diseases of the Old World.


Chapter 2: The Issue of Heritage


The ancient civilizations left a mixed heritage including regional diversity, monotheism, and distinctive monumental architecture. One lasting heritage was the basic apparatus of civilization the idea of writing, calendars, basic mathematics, improved technologies such as irrigation and iron, more productive grain seeds, the potter's wheel, the wheel, money, and written law which did not have to be reinvented in this part of the world.
The direct cultural contributions of the ancient civilizations are harder to trace. Some architectural and literary traditions were retained, although in modified form. The political traditions of divine kingship and regional city-states resurfaced in later civilizations. Some historians maintain that civilizations derived from the ancient Near Eastern cultures viewed nature as separate from humanity and largely antagonistic to it. Such a viewpoint diverged from early civilizations in Asia that posited a universal harmony of all things

Chapter 3: Beginnings and Transitions
The Aryan migrations into the Indian subcontinent and the Zhou conquest of the Shang both involved significant transformations in earlier civilizations. In India, Harappan civilization was unable to withstand both climatic change and the invasions of the Aryan peoples. The culture of the Aryans represented something new in South Asia rather than a continuation of Harappan civilization. The Zhou, despite their overthrow of the Shang rulers, largely accepted and continued Chinese civilization. The Zhou were assimilated and became Chinese. Continuity of culture and civilization is one of the hallmarks of Chinese history.


Chapter 4:  Nomads and the Pattern of Global History

Although pastoral nomads have not created empires of their own, their interactions with civilized cores has been extensive. The capacity of the civilized centers to support vastly greater populations, to develop greater occupational diversity, and to produce lasting institutions has given core regions great advantages over nomadic peoples. The impact of pastoral nomads has been significant, but usually of short duration.


Chapter 5:  An Era of Accomplishment and Affluence

Despite disorder following the fall of Chinese dynasties, there was considerable continuity in Chinese culture. The Han era established a foundation from which later Chinese culture departed only slowly. Among the most permanent aspects of Chinese culture was the belief in the unity of imperial China and the desirability of a central government in the hands of an emperor assisted by a professional bureaucracy of educated shi. There continued to be a great gap between the educated elite, who accepted the great schools of Chinese philosophy, and the peasantry, who were often illiterate and who continued more ancient patterns of worship and veneration


Chapter 6:  A Complex Legacy


Greek civilization established certain cultural characteristics for western civilization. Greek political ideas were more enduring than the actual political constitutions of the city-states. Slavery was an important component of the classical West. Perhaps the most significant contributions were in art and philosophy. Like India, cultural cohesion in Greece rested more in the realm of ideas than in political empire. Greek civilization has often been considered an integral foundation for American culture. For a truly world perspective, it is necessary to see Greek civilization in the context of other world cultures.


  1. Chapter 7:  Rome
  2. When the empire ceased to expand around 180 C.E., a period of crisis set in. The end of conquest limited new supplies of labor and economic growth at a time when military requirement continued to increase. The Italian economy continued to suffer, as exports from abroad cut into agricultural profits. Estates began to practice subsistence rather than commercial production. The quality of emperors declined after the second century C.E. Some aspects of Roman civilization were enduring. Greco-Roman political and philosophical traditions became a foundation for later western civilization. Slavery and the suppression of women were less beneficent heritages. The social structure of the Mediterranean, as a whole, did not last much beyond the classical period. Unlike India or China, the end of the classical period in the Mediterranean was final. There was no ultimate revival of western classical civilization.


Chapter 8:  India

  1. By the end of the Aryan period, around 500 B.C.E., fairly large kingdoms arose along the Ganges River valley. Urbanization emerged in the capitals of the kingdoms and near major religious temples. The top of the Aryan social hierarchy was occupied by priests, warriors, and merchants. The Vedic priests, or brahmans, utilized an increasingly rigid caste structure to cement their social dominance. By the sixth century B.C.E., however, religious thinkers were beginning to challenge the rituals on which the brahman elite depended. The most important of these thinkers, the Buddha, created a new religion that would have world-wide significance. The rivalry between Buddhism and Vedic religion helped to reshape Indian culture. The revived Vedic religion that was the product of cultural change is called Hinduism. The founding of Buddhism also contributed to the establishment of the Mauryan Empire, India's first centralized government since Harappa.

The Mauryan Empire was brief, and its collapse was followed by another round of nomadic invasions. In the fourth century B.C.E., the Guptas succeeded in creating another empire in northern India. Unlike the Maurya, the Gupta were dedicated to the restoration of brahman dominance. Indian history during this period was defined by political disunity broken only briefly by imperial unification


Chapter 9:  American Civilizations

Contact between Mesoamerica and the Andes led to parallels in cultural development and the chronology of the emergence of more complex political systems. Much of this was probably funnelled through intermediate cultures in Central America. There were important differences. Peruvian cultures used metallurgy more fully than their Mesoamerican counterparts. The existence of the llama in the Andes allowed the development of a form of pastoralism there unknown in Mexico. Unlike the Maya, the cultures of the Andean highlands never developed a system of writing.


  1. Chapter 10:  Fall of Rome
  3. Classical civilizations had widespread influences over other cultures. Many of the most important aspects of civilization may have been exported from the cores rather than reinvented by different cultures at different times. The methods by which culture was exported varied. In Roman civilization, conquest provided a means of transporting Mediterranean ideas, languages, and institutions. In other cases, trade provided the cultural nexus between peoples.

When Rome fell, the Germanic peoples who invaded and settled within the boundaries of the former empire absorbed the Mediterranean civilization.


  1. Chapter 11:  China
  3. By 600 C.E. the world was affected both by the decline of classical civilizations and the spread of world religions. China, more than other areas, was able to retain the foundations of political unification. Both China and India maintained substantial cultural cohesion based on classical norms. The Mediterranean civilizations were split irrevocably. Geographical focus for classical civilization was lost, although certain cultural attributes were retained in attenuated forms.

The results of classical decline went beyond the striking shifts in religious allegiance. Some areas changed far more than others. China was unique in its ability to recapture so many classical ingredients. The heritage of classical Mediterranean civilization was used selectively by successor civilizations

Chapter 12:  The Measure of Islamic Achievement
By the ninth century, the power of the Abbasid rulers in Baghdad had waned. Increasingly the authority of the caliphs was lost to Turkish military commanders who carved out independent territories within the empire. Loss of centralization in the ninth century should not diminish the scope of the earlier Muslim achievements: the creation of a global empire, the emergence of one of the universal religions, the preservation of the cultures of ancient Hellenistic Greece and Persia, and the construction of a Eurasian trade system that would survive until the sixteenth century.


Chapter 13:  The Legacy of the Abbasid Age


Although political centralization ended during the Abbasid period, Islam continued to serve a significant role as the connective link between the civilized cores of Eurasia. Islam also facilitated the civilization of nomadic peoples of central Asia and Africa. Some developments pointed to weaknesses that later proved serious detriments in the contest with European civilization. Political divisions granted opportunities for European expansion in the Middle East. The growing conservatism of the ulama made the Islamic world less receptive to technological and scientific advances in other civilizations. Entrepreneurial activities within the Islamic commercial network were increasingly dominated by non-Muslims


Chapter 14:  Internal Development and External Contacts


The spread of Islam into Africa tied the continent more closely to the civilizations of Eurasia. In much of Africa, the fusion of Islamic and indigenous culture produced an important synthesis. In other areas of Africa, particularly south of the southern rain forests, Bantu concepts of kingship and state formation continued to develop without much contact with Islamic culture. When Europeans arrived in Africa in the fifteenth century, they discovered powerful kingdoms that already had long histories and patterns of trade that linked Africa to the wider commercial world.


  1. Chapter 15: Eastern Europe
  3. Two civilizations survived in postclassical Europe: the Byzantine Empire and its culturally related cultures of eastern Europe and the Catholic cultures of western Europe. The Byzantine Empire was a political heir of Rome, but with a different geographical focus. Byzantine civilization was more than a continuation of Roman culture. Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, was one of the greatest European cities. Orthodox Christianity spread from Byzantium to the rest of eastern Europe. One of the most important cultural heirs of Byzantium was Russia. As in western Europe, Byzantine culture spread northward from the Mediterranean into the plains of Europe stimulating the development of derivative political units. Eastern Europe retained its distinctive commercial, religious, and political patterns into the modern world.
  1. Chapter 16: The Postclassical West and Its Heritage: A Balance Sheet

In some ways, the medieval West did remain backward in comparison to civilizations in China and South Asia. There were some advances. Medieval thinkers did help to recapture the rationalism of their classical past. Art and architecture showed some creativity in leaving classical forms. In politics, medieval rulers abandoned the imperial past to create more limited regional monarchies. The medieval economy prepared the way for the development of western capitalism. In short, the medieval West created its own, distinct culture. The postclassical West shared some characteristics with other civilized cores. Conversion to Christianity bore some resemblance to Islamic civilization. Medieval rulers mimicked some of the tactics of centralization found in Chinese civilization. Like Africa, western monarchies remained small and regionalized. As in Japan, feudalism emerged. Unlike either Africa or Japan, the West was more expansive and established much more extensive contacts with other civilizations.


  1. Chapter 17:  American Indian Diversity in World Context

By the end of the fifteenth century, two militaristic empires were established in Mesoamerica and the Andes. These empires proved vulnerable to internal disruption and technologically inferior to Eurasian civilizations. Elsewhere in the Americas, other Indian groups demonstrated enormous diversity in social organization and economic development.


  1. Chapter 18: The End of the Song the Legacy of Two Great Dynasties

Although the Song retreated to the south, they were unable to avoid the thirteenth-century invasions of the Mongols. By 1279, China was in the hands of the pastoral nomads. Mongol rulers invoked the Yuan dynasty in China. The Tang-Song era restored Chinese centralization and the bureaucracy. Critical to both was the primacy of the Confucian scholar- gentry. Neo-Confucian thought advocated the restriction of women (i.e. footbinding).  It was under the Tang that southern China was fully incorporated into the empire. The emperors of the Tang and Song facilitated the commercial and agricultural expansion that typified China into the eighteenth century. Even though Chinese civilization, more than the other core regions, retained its traditional structure, much innovation and change took place within China in the Tang-Song era.


  1. Chapter 19:  Divergent Paths in East Asian Development

Chinese culture spread to the sedentary agricultural populations of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam in the first millennium C.E. Chinese writing, bureaucratic organization, religion, and art all made impressions on the indigenous cultures. In general, the local elites of the three regions actively sought to emulate Chinese models. Differences within the three areas resulted in divergent outcomes and alternative mixes of the indigenous and the imported. China was able to establish direct control over Korea. In Vietnam, Chinese influences mingled with Indian cultural contributions. Only Japan remained permanently independent of China and, thus, was able to selectively adapt Chinese models to Japanese needs. In East Asia, as a whole, cultural exchanges took place in isolation from the rest of the civilized world.


  1. Chapter 20:  The Mongol Legacy and an Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur

Mongol invasions were devastating, but the conquests paved the way for the dominance of Moscow in Russia, ended regimes in the Islamic heartlands, created a trading zone that linked all of the civilized regions of Eurasia, and imposed an effective and tolerant government over much of Asia. Following the fragmentation of the Mongol empire, a second nomadic expansion occurred under Timur-i Lang. In the 1360s his armies devastated a wide region of the Middle East, India, and southern Russia. There were few positive results of Timur's short-lived empire. After his death in 1405, his kingdom rapidly disintegrated.

Chapter 21:  The West

  1. After 1400, a new world balance was being created. The Mongol conquest caused the decline of Arab strength and opened opportunities for new participants in the Islamic trade system. At first the Ming dynasty of China appeared poised to take over the lead in world trade. When the Ming withdrew from international leadership, the nations of western Europe began to assert themselves.

The emergence of western Europe was signaled by internal changes that prepared the way for leadership. Changes outside the Eurasian network in Africa, the Americas, and Polynesia also affected the nature of international relationships.

Chapter 22:  The West
After 1450, western Europe became commercially active and had established the foundations of industrialization. Science and technology were more advanced than previously. More centralized governments developed. In areas of popular beliefs and family structure, the West was developing concepts not common in other civilizations. After 1450, the spirit of innovation spread beyond Italy and the Iberian peninsula to the rest of Europe. These ideas spread beyond the West with the development of European colonialism and the growing Western control of the international trade system


  1. Chapter 23: The Impact of a New World Order

The creation of a world economy largely dominated by the West was a major shift in history. Latin America, Africa, the southern colonies of the American coast, and some other regions were drawn into a system that condemned them to an inferior, dependent status. The global economy created new and more extensive links among civilizations. The emergence of the West called forth responses from other civilizations, creating world-wide change


Chapter 24:  Russia

  1. The expansion of Russia reduced eastern Europe to a narrow band separating Russia from the West. Poland, the Czech, and Slovak regions of Europe remained more a part of the Western tradition than part of the Russian cultural milieu. These areas participated in the scientific revolution and the Protestant Reformation of the West. Even those areas that remained outside of Russian political control tended to fall under the aegis of the authoritarian regimes of Prussia and Austria.

Perhaps the most striking political feature of the period was the decline of Poland from the largest entity in eastern Europe to subdivision among Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The existence of a dominant aristocracy, coercive agricultural labor systems, and the absence of a substantial merchant class were common to eastern European nations and Russia. The eclipse of Poland highlighted the emergence of the Russian empire in Europe and central Asia.

Chapter 25:  Latin America

  1. Portugal and Spain imposed dependent colonies on the indigenous peoples of Latin America. Unlike Russia, where leaders were able to selectively borrow from Western culture, the Iberian colonists imposed their forms on their New World possessions. The colonies of Latin America fully demonstrated the technological advantages enjoyed by Western nations over the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Latin American social hierarchies were deeply affected by the intermarriage of Iberian Europeans with the Indian population and by the importation of African slaves.

In the New World, Europeans tended to draw on their experiences from the West, while Native American peoples struggled to maintain their own ways of life. New World colonies were exploitative. Wherever possible, plantation forms of agriculture based on coercive labor systems were established. The mining of precious metals was another aspect of European exploitation of the New World


Chapter 26:  Muslim Empires

  1. Between 1450 and 1750, the growth of three great empires, continued trading contacts, and the dissemination of the Islamic faith typified the Islamic zone. Although the growth of the Western trade system had relatively little internal impact on the Muslim empires, the Western nations were establishing the commercial bases for economic dominance after the eighteenth century.

In the wake of the nomadic incursion of the Mongols and the armies of Timur, three great empires coalesced: the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid. These three empires were characterized by military power based on gunpowder, political absolutism, and a cultural renaissance. The empires differed in the ethnic complexity of their territories and their allegiance to Shi'ism or Sunni Islam

Chapter 27:  Africa

  1. With the rise of the West, the traditional alignment of Africa with the Islamic world was altered. External influences exerted both by the West and by Islam accelerated political change and introduced substantial social reorganization.

After 1450, much of Africa was brought into the world trade system, often through involvement in the slave trade. Through the institution of slavery, African culture was transferred to the New World, where it became part of a new social amalgam. Involvement in the slave trade was not the only influence on Africa in this period.
East Africa remained part of the Islamic trade system, and the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia continued its independent existence. In some parts of Africa, states formed into larger kingdoms without outside influence.

Chapter 28:  Asia

  1. Vasco da Gama's voyages into the Indian Ocean opened up Asia for European commercial development through the control of the sea. Not sufficiently powerful to conquer the great Asian civilizations, the European nations fit themselves relatively peacefully into the Asian commercial network.

European nations worked along the interstices of Asian civilizations and introduced little external change. When the Europeans posed a threat, the Asian civilizations isolated themselves from the West.


Chapter 29:  Diplomacy and Society
By the nineteenth century, the absence of a single imperial power in Europe resulted in tensions among the nation-states. International disputes reflected growing fears of European governments over socialism and the potential power of the masses. Strong foreign policies and appeals to nationalism were one means utilized to distract populations from internal distress. Military escalation also aided industrialization. Mass circulation of newspapers could be used to shape public opinion in favor of nationalist escapades. Thus, after a century of peace and enhanced standards of living, European nations embarked on the path to war.

Chapter 30:  Imperialism

  1. In the initial stages of imperialism, Europeans went to conquer new lands, to gain manufactured goods and raw materials not available in Europe, or to win new converts to Christianity. After industrialization, European imperialism changed. Post-industrial imperialists sought raw materials to feed the factories of the home country and new markets for manufactured goods. Religious conversion was not much of a factor.

Post-industrial imperialism also resulted in the creation of true empires in Asia and Africa. No civilization was sufficiently powerful to stave off European penetration. By 1850, the new imperialism produced a race to establish empires abroad.

Chapter 31:  Latin America

  1. European imperialism in the nineteenth century swallowed up much of Southeast Asia, India, Africa, and the Pacific. Three areas escaped full inclusion in the imperialist net East Asia, Russia, and the Middle East. More surprisingly, Latin America, one of the earliest European colonial ventures, successfully cast off European political control and gained independence.

Latin American political leaders were shaped in the era of Enlightenment beliefs and accepted concepts common in the West, such as progress and rights in property. Despite some common ideology, the new nations faced numerous problems inherited from their colonial past. The new nations carried with them colonial social systems that were strictly hierarchical and in which a small Creole elite dominated the economy and politics. Indians, former slaves, and peasants shared little in the economic expansion of the second half of the century.


  1. Chapter 32:  Middle East and China
  2. In the Middle Eastern empires and Qing China, problems of internal political decline were accentuated by the menace of Western intrusion. It appeared that China would recover fully under the Manchus and that the forces of Western merchants could be contained at the ports of Macao and Canton. Qing China appeared as safely dominant in East Asia as ever.

In contrast, the Ottoman Empire seemed on the verge of collapse in the eighteenth century. Internal independence movements, European encroachments, and political disarray at Constantinople seemed to be harbingers of imminent disaster. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the picture had changed. European military intervention in China exposed the Qing dynasty as weak to external assault. Internal disruptions swept away the imperial system of China leaving little in its place. Foreign forces competed for dominance in the wreckage of the Qing empire. The Ottoman Empire recovered from its eighteenth-century malaise. Although much of the Middle East was lost, Turkish reformers overthrew the sultanate, but quickly reformulated a new government.

Chapter 33:  Russia and Japan
Russia and Japan managed to avoid Western dominance and industrialize to achieve economic autonomy. Japan proved to be the most flexible politically, whereas the strain of industrialization produced a series of revolutions in Russia. As late industrializers, however, the were substantial similarities between Russia and Japan. Both nations had prior experience with cultural imitation: Japan from China, Russia from Byzantium and the West. Both had achieved more effective central governments during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As both countries industrialized, they came into conflict over territorial ambitions in Asia


Chapter 34: 20th century Europe

  1. In the first half of the twentieth century, global wars and a severe depression resulted in the decline of Western Europe. The second period was defined by the great rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States. This period, known as the cold war, led to the creation of alliance systems and economic unions. Each crisis extended the nature of conflict more fully around the globe.

Confidence and Internationalism on the War's Eve
International organization was one of the harbingers of progress. The Geneva Convention of 1864, the establishment of the Red Cross, the Telegraphic and Postal unions all pointed toward greater international cooperation. Scientists and industrialists began to display their accomplishments at great fairs and international gatherings.
Internationalization had two weaknesses: dependence on Western dominance and the emergence of strong nationalist movements. These weaknesses affected political cooperation, in particular. Discussions at the Hague in 1899 did result in international agreements on treatment of war prisoners and banned certain types of warfare, but disarmament was not accepted. A permanent court of arbitration, the World Court, did survive the conference.


Chapter 35:  Will the Real West Please Stand Up?


Modern Western society reflected tensions between new industrial values and cultural traditions from the past. While Western attitudes continued to foster individualism, the workplace was typified by routine and repetitive tasks strictly controlled by supervisory apparatus. Leisure also implied participation in mass activities. By the 1950s, the leading leisure activity was watching television. Collective protest against bureaucratization such as union protests and strikes declined. Western society seemed fragmented by youth protest, gaps in wealth and poverty, and rising rates of suicide and mental illness. Through it all, the West remained committed to the political form of representative democracy. The shift to the new industrialization based on a service economy involved a transformation as basic as the initial industrialization of the later eighteenth century. The advent of the computer heralded the post industrial idea of transmission of information as the key to growth. The changing position of women seemed to announce the formation of the postindustrial family with two wage-earners. Environmental and feminist politics produced new types of political agitation. Despite the suggestion that a new society has emerged, there remain strong elements of earlier social and cultural forms
Chapter 36:  Asia
In the twentieth century, the states of the Pacific Rim developed powerful economies that challenged those of the West. The emergence of the Pacific Rim was led by Japan, an imperial power by the early twentieth century. After its loss in World War II, Japan reappeared as a leader in Pacific industrialization. Japan's rise challenged Western industrial powers, while it continued to draw raw materials from much of the world. After World War II, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan also industrialized. The Pacific Rim combines aspects of industrialized society with the traditions of Asia.

  1. Chapter 37: Latin America
  2.  During the twentieth century, Latin America could be grouped with those nations referred to as the Third World. Having received their independence earlier than other Third World nations, Latin American countries tended to emulate Western social and political structures more closely.

Economic dependence continued in the twentieth century. Decolonization in Latin America frequently involved attempts to gain greater economic independence and to discover successful cultural and political forms. Industrialization, with larger labor groups, a growing middle class, and continued European immigration, did occur. Economic prosperity was often linked to political conservatism, while economic crisis produced political radicalism. Despite numerous revolutions, institutions and social patterns have proven resistant to change.

  1. Chapter 38
  2. During the twentieth century, Latin America could be grouped with those nations referred to as the Third World. Having received their independence earlier than other Third World nations, Latin American countries tended to emulate Western social and political structures more closely.

Economic dependence continued in the twentieth century. Decolonization in Latin America frequently involved attempts to gain greater economic independence and to discover successful cultural and political forms. Industrialization, with larger labor groups, a growing middle class, and continued European immigration, did occur. Economic prosperity was often linked to political conservatism, while economic crisis produced political radicalism. Despite numerous revolutions, institutions and social patterns have proven resistant to change.
Chapter 39
Shaken by the events of twentieth-century colonialism, leaders in Asia and Africa began to reevaluate what needed to be kept from their own cultures and what accommodations with the West needed to be made. Reinvigoration of traditional beliefs and political structures was critical to the process of decolonization. The beginnings of decolonization lay in the development of Western-educated middle classes in colonized Africa and Asia. Relying on primarily peaceful means, indigenous leaders expelled colonial regimes. World War I served to sufficiently weaken the Western colonialists so that anticolonialist movements became possible. World War II crushed the ability of the European powers to maintain the colonial structure.


Chapter 40:  The Postcolonial Experience in Historical Perspective


Most of the new nations came into existence with limitations imposed on them as a result of their colonial experience. Given the brief period of their existence, it is difficult to assess their performance in terms of economic development and social reform. Despite difficulties, most of the nations have survived. India's continued ability to govern a multiethnic society demonstrates the resiliency of some new nations. The process of industrialization has always been accompanied by social crises. African and Asian nations have experienced these problems exacerbated by rampant population growth and initially dependent economies. Despite the initial cultural dominance of the West imposed through imperialism, Asian and African artists and authors have made great contributions.
Chapter 41:  China and Vietnam

  1. Both China and Vietnam have undergone revolutionary transformations in the twentieth century. New governments eliminated much of the traditional elite. The Confucian system of education was supplanted by public education programs. Women's status has improved. Marxism replaced Confucianism as the guiding orthodoxy. Some aspects of traditional culture have been retained. Both societies continue to harbor suspicions about commercial classes. Political philosophy continues to stress the duty of the government to rule for the benefit of the people. Both nations continue to stress harmony and secularism. The traditional assumption of cultural superiority remains. Despite Mao's resistance, the existence of a bureaucratic elite is evident. In these ways, the traditional culture of East Asia has survived a period of revolution.



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World history summary chapter 1 to 41



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